Monday, May 25, 2020
The ancient Greek world does not look favorably on women. Women are seen as docile, unintelligent, and domestic. Placed socially below men, they are locked into tending to household duties and to their children, and can not go out without a man. Women are not expected to be educated or participate in political discussion, with the exception of knowing just enough to be able to be entertaining at a dinner party and not embarrass her husband. Lacking in political and social rights, women do not have many chances to hold a political or social lime light, and are expected to stay in the background while the men took the forefront. However, there are a handful of texts in Greek literature that showcase the opposite, and put female leadÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I have no strength for thatÃ¢â¬ (page 63, line 93) and after expressing her disapproval in AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, says, Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢re so rash- IÃ¢â¬â¢m so afraid for you!Ã¢â¬ (page 63, line 96). In contrast, her sister argues with her, telling her, Ã¢â¬Å"you have your excuses. I am on my wayÃ¢â¬ (page 93, line 94). This quote demonstrates how she believes that she should not conform to a submissive role but rather go against the accepted norm and live her own morals out. Antigone later goes on to fight with Creon, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"your moralizing repels me, every word you sayÃ¢â¬ (page 84, lines 557-558), and Ã¢â¬Å"[I am] not ashamed for a momentÃ¢â¬ (page 84, line 573). Antigone unapologetically goes against the law, and therefore the male figures in charge, by breaking a state-wide decree and burying her brother. While Ismene represents how women are supposed to act in this society, Antigone acts directly against these standards. In Medea, the foil characters are Glauce and Medea. Glauce is JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s new wife and daughter of King Creon, making her a princess. She is obedient and used by Jason as an object of sexual desire without protest. In fact, she has no lines in th e play, symbolic of her subservient and silent nature. On the other hand, Medea is loud and antagonistic. She clearly states her hatred for the role women are forced into, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"we women are the most patheticÃ¢â¬ ¦ we have to buy a husbandÃ¢â¬ (page 12, lines 232-233) and Ã¢â¬Å"we must rely on just one single soul (ourShow MoreRelatedAntigone And Ismene Essay1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDiscuss the differences between Antigone and Ismene in their views of women in society. How does each sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s view shape the choices she makes in the play? How consistent is each, in her view? The play Antigone, written by Sophocles is the last book of his trilogy called The Oedipus Play of Sophocle. Antigone take places in the city of Thebes, the play open Ã¢â¬Å"some days laterÃ¢â¬ there have been an edict by King Creon regarding the burials of Eteocles and Polyneices; Eteocles, will get a proper burialRead MoreEssay Antigone And Ismene600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Antigone and Ismene nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The personalities of the two sisters; Antigone and Ismene, are as different from one another as tempered steel is from a ball of cotton. One is hard and resistant; the other: pliable, absorbing and soft. Antigone would have been a strong, successful 90s type woman with her liberated and strong attitude towards her femininity, while Ismene seems to be a more dependent 1950s style woman. Antigone acts as a free spirit, a defiant individual, whileRead MoreConformity And Nonconformity In SophoclesAntigone1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdetrimental to the rules that society imposes. In Antigone, the playwright, Sophocles, discusses how the choice to conform or not to conform can have an impact on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. He utilizes the controversy surrounding the central conflict of the play, the death of Polyneices, to portray his charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards conformity and nonconformity. Creon and Ismene are conformists because they believe in the absolute power of the law; whereas, Antigone is a nonconformist because she rebels againstRead MoreMasculinity And Femininity : Sophocles Play Antigone 1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis essay will focus on the messages about masculinity and femininity from SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Antigone. For class we watched the Greek film version of the play from 1961 which is in Greek but it has English Subtitles. The essay will use both male and female characters from Antigone to show ex amples of masculinity and femininity. There are characters that are either positive or negative, characters that serve as role models, or characters who show what not to be like. First I will write about the positiveRead MoreAntigone, The Daughter Of Oedipus And Clytemnestra839 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn this Greacan tragedy, Antigone, the daughter of Oedipus and Clytemnestra seeks to bury her brother Polyneices much against the wishes and orders of her uncle and the king, Creon. Her parents and her brothers are both dead and she wishes to leave behind her beautiful sister Ismene and join her family in the underworld. Polyneices, her brother died fighting for the throne against his brother Eteocles. Polyneices fought against Eteocles for the throne and died fighting. He was from Thebes and inRead MoreAntigone Role of Women1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTaylor Fleming Professor Stoner English 1301 October 16, 2012 Antigone Essay Throughout history, cultures from around the world has set hat standards for women to abide to. Up until the twentieth century, women were viewed as second class citizens by society and had less freedom and rights than their male counterparts as compare today in the modern world where women can be more involve in society. Although women still face discrimination such as the glassRead MoreAnalysis Of The Central Conflicts Of Antigone 908 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Drama Essay The topic I chose to write this essay on is about the examination of the central conflicts that are taking place in the story Ã¢â¬Å"AntigoneÃ¢â¬ . Throughout the story and what seems to be the start of many conflicts to come is, Antigone the main character having hard time fathering the fact that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not allowed to bury her other brother Polynices. Due to orders given by her uncle Creon. Essentially in the story Antigone struggles with fighting againstRead More Antigone Essay1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAntigone Essay In any story or piece of literature, there will always be the main characters to fill the pages with incessant adventure. The characters whose names appear on almost every page and the characters whose actions the story revolves around. However, a story will also always have its minor characters. These are the characters that contribute heavily to the plot, yet arent mentioned quite as often and are underestimated regarding their importance in the story. In the Greek masterpieceRead MoreAntigone vs Creon827 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Task: Write an essay about the conflict between Antigone and Creon in Antigone, by Sophocles. Show how each is right in his or her own fundamental belief. Then show how the tragedy was inevitable or show how one side was wrong and should have changed. In Antigone, by Sophocles, there is conflict between the characters Antigone and Creon. Antigone is characterized as a rebellious girl, who turns into a martyr, and just lost both her brothers, Eteocles and Polynices, in a war between the city-statesRead MoreEssay about Gender Bias Critic of Antigone1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Gender Bias Approach to Antigone Just as one stone removed can break a bridge, one flaw can bring a man to ruins. The flaw of one man cannot bring down an entire kingdom, but rather one outlook of the king can lead to the demise of the whole. In Sophocles epic tragedy, Antigone, a strong gender bias is present throughout the tragedy, and is partially responsible for the downfall of the king. To Sophocles the king is not always representative of the people, but acts on his own personal desires
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Eating disorder (ED) is a disorder of self- and affect-regulation (Fonagy et al., 2002; SkÃ ¥rderud, 2007a, 2007b; SkÃ ¥rderud Fonagy, 2012). A growing body of theoretical and empirical research suggests that ED is related to a compromised ability to mentalize (Gillberg et al., 2010; Robinson et al., 2014; SkÃ ¥rderud Fonagy, 2012). Pre-reflective modes of thinking are prevalent among ED patients, influencing their behaviour and also clinical presentation (Fonagy et al., 2002; SkÃ ¥rderud Fonagy, 2012). Mentalizing model could provide dynamic and developmental perspectives for understanding the pathology. However, research in this area is scarce, especially the empirical studies which used the RFS as the assessment tool. 188.8.131.52 Mentalizing Impairment in ED Few empirical ED studies included the RFS in the research design. Among the existing RFS studies on ED, some reported low levels of RF for ED patients. For example, Ward et al. (2001) found a score of 2.4 for the Anorexia Nervosa inpatients in their study. This result replicated Fonagy and colleagues (1996) finding with a score of 2.8 for fourteen eating disorder patients. According to the RFS manual, an RF score below 3 represents poor mentalizing ability. Therefore, severe mentalizing impairments were evidenced among these ED samples. Compared to Anorexia Nervosa inpatients, Pedersen and colleagues (2012) in their Bulimia Nervosa outpatient sample (BN; n =70), found a higher RF mean score of 4.11 which was notShow MoreRelatedTo Eat or Not to Eat?758 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbirthday. This is what happened to eight year old Emily Moore. It is estimated that a whopping eight million Americans have an eating disorder- seven million women and one million men (Stern). An eating disorder is an obsession with food and weight that harms the personÃ¢â¬â¢s well being (Ciotola). Eating disorders arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just going on a diet and losing a few pounds, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an illness. Some of the most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A solution to eating disorders is to educateRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. They all involve serious disturbances in weight re gulation and eating habits, accompanied by adverse effects on social, psychological and physical aspects of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Ã¢â¬ËEating disorders: About more than foodÃ¢â¬â¢, n.d.). This essay will specifically be focusing on bulimia nervosa, as research shows a higher level of stigma associated with it, compared to other eating disorders (Roehrig McLean, 2009)Read MoreBeauty Pageants : Changing The Face Of Pageants Essay1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages fitness and discipline are learned, along with winning prizes and rewards. With that comes negative affects though such as, shallowness and becoming over confident, depression and health risks. According to family therapist, pageants interfere with the healthy development of young children. Resulting in a lifetime of challenges, being body shamed, perfectionism, depression and eating disorders. A former child beauty queen says that Ã¢â¬Å"dressing and acting like a woman at a young age compelled meRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder: A Literature Review Essay1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The history of BPD can be traced back to 1938 when Adolph Stern first described the symptoms of the disorder as neither being psychotic nor psychoneurotic; hence, the term Ã¢â¬ËborderlineÃ¢â¬â¢ was introduced (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2009, p. 15). Then in 1960, Otto Kernberg coined the term Ã¢â¬Ëborderline personality organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe persistent patterns of behavior and functioning consisting of instability, and distressed psychological self-organization (National CollaboratingRead MorePhysiological Psychology : The Effects Of Heredity On Disordered Eating Behaviors2214 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Physiological Psychology: The Effects of Heredity on Disordered Eating Behaviors Ashley Hannan Liberty University Abstract This paper investigates five scholarly articles which researched and reported upon the correlation of heredity and genetics factors upon disordered eating behaviors in individuals. Some of the articles argue that genetics and physiology play a more important role in the formation of disordered eating behaviors, while others assert that nurture and environment have a largerRead MoreEating Disorder2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Eating Disorders: Dying To Be Skinny Lyric Stembridge Berkmar High School Ms. Destang March 13, 2014 Abstract Eating disorders are very dangerous eating conditions that involve either overeating or not eating at all. There are two main eating disorders; anorexiaRead MoreThe Treatment Of Eating Disorders Essay1955 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEating disorders are one of the most common psychiatric illnesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, yet they receive the least amount of attention. In the United States alone, Ã¢â¬Å"approximately 8 million peopleÃ¢â¬ have currently been diagnosed with a clinically significant eating disorder while it is estimated that over Ã¢â¬Å"20 million women and 10 million men have suffered from a clinically significant eating disorder at some point in their livesÃ¢â¬ (Crash Course). There is a huge disparity between the amount of people whoRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprocess, which produces a lack of connection in a person s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identityÃ¢â¬ (Grohol, 2016). The Dissociative Identity Disor der (DID) is a severe condition in which two or more separate, distinct identities or personality states are present in an individual. In other words, a person has, what seems like, actual distinct and contrasting people in their head and these Ã¢â¬Å"altersÃ¢â¬ are able to take control of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and body at any time and act asRead MoreDisease Analysis: Anorexia Nervosa2366 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageshave strange eating habits. Some show extremely picky behavior when it comes to food and some eat particular foods at particular times (Eating Disorders, 2006). However, serious eating disorders can be categorized as follows: Anorexia nervosa: when an individual self-starves himself/herself so that he/she can avoid obesity (Eating Disorders, 2009). Anorexic people refuse to maintain their normal body weight which thus results in the malnourishment of the body (Eating Disorders, 2006). BingeRead MoreThe Pressure of Reducing Weight on Athletes3847 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthe common explanation for the increased prevalence of eating-related problems among athletes and dancers. One of the reasons that ballet dancers may be at risk for developing eating disorders is that they may have to diet in order to maintain the sylph-like bodies that are required for the discipline of ballet. Lowenkopf and Vincent (1982) have suggested that female adolescent dancers run eight times the risk of developing eating disorders compared to their non-dieting peers. Ballet is also an activity
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Multiculturalism Introduction Much like other problems of this time, the ideas of multiculturalism and immigration have become a major concern in European politics and have made people question the status quo of such conceptions as nationhood, community cohesion, and citizenship (de Guchteneire et al. 30). Migration has been the major cause of this phenomenon known as multiculturalism. The notion of culture includes values, habits, identity, language, citizenship, and religion. A monoculture exhibits similarity in all the above mentioned factors (de Guchteneire et al. 32). In a multicultural state there is culture diversification, in which people are at will to practice their various cultures. Multiculturalism has led to conflicts between the natives and the immigrants, as was the case in the United Kingdom, Germany, and South Africa. While immigration offers political refugees a place to settle, it may lead to serious conflicts which may slow the host economy to a great extent. The Case of Germany and UK Political and economic immigrants have often been viewed as a threat to the unity of the society. In the United Kingdom, the conflict that resulted between the Asians and the native British Citizens were attributed to multiculturalism by school of thought (Faas 5). Notably, this may not be necessarily true because Britain has always been diverse and multicultural; for example, the North Africans who came to patrol the HadrianÃ¢â¬â¢s Wall and the onset of the Celtic civilization.Show MoreRelatedMulticulturalism Has Had a Rough Start648 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesimmigrants are trans-national. What I mean by that is very simple: the immigrants care more for the countries they escaped and the people there, than for the country they now live in and the people they live among. Vladimir Putin said in 2012 that multiculturalism Ã¢â¬Å"rejects the notion of integration through assimilation.Ã¢â¬ At the same time he says that the result of the social model will end as so: Ã¢â¬Å"There can be just one outcome for such a social model: xenophobia on the part of the indigenous populationRead MoreThe Character of Britishness1263 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstatement that a unified British identity resides in a sense of shared values could therefore be somewhat problematic in terms of the values themselves, the current trend towards individualism, and the multicultural nature of residents in the United Kingdom. According to several authors, politicians are not wrong to surmise that there is a significant decline in a unified national British identity. Kerr (2012), for example, confirms this by noting that there has been a decline in the proportionRead MoreIs Multiculturalism Bad For Women?1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn this essay I argue that multiculturalism and establishing group rights for cultures is not as harmful to the interests women as Okin implies in her essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?Ã¢â¬ . (587). First I will outline OkinÃ¢â¬â¢s examples which she uses to frame her view of the control of women by men in their cultures. I will also outline her arguments that group rights and multiculturalism should be viewed skeptically. I will then define multiculturalism. Then I will argue that Okin uses vagueRead MoreCitizenship, Religion and Society Policy of the United Kingdom 825 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCitizenship, Religion and Society Policy of the United Kingdom Introduction Religion affects the way in which one of the majority of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population structures people live. Many mainstream institutional religions have experienced declining membership, retains power to influence systems of ethnics and morality. Also, religion has a strong connection with integration and migration. Therefore, Europe differs considerably in their responses toward integration and migration-related diversityRead MoreMulticulturalism in Canada1819 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMulticulturalism in Canada An Overview The term multiculturalism has been used by the Canadians in two different perspectives. The first use of this word is descriptive; meanwhile the other one is normative. The former sense implies the description of various religious and cultural groups that the Canadian population consists of. The nation of Canada is based on people from various races, religions and cultural backgrounds and there is a general acceptance of cultural pluralism in the countryRead MoreWhat Does It Mean For A University? Essay1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommitment to social responsibility to its stakeholders. Over a long period time, the thought of social responsibility has been seen to grow and foster in its importance and significance. Mainly this is why it has been adopted and practiced across the United Kingdom and beyond by universities and business. Social responsibility is a concept that is defined, as the means a firm or business acts ethical and socially aware of their impact to society. Overall, this essay will consist of the dimensions of socialRead MoreSocial Inequality And Stereotyping Cultures From Political Power1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseducators with the right strategies and planning can foster valuable cultural experiences and cultivate socio-equality with their students and their school communities. Multicultural education is the term used most frequently in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada, with the term intercultural education frequently used on the European continent. Intercultural Education implies an education that promotes interaction among different cultures and Multicultural Education Read MoreThe Monarch Era Of Britain1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessupremacy of the reigning monarch and in its colony, including Canada. It found its way into our modern law system created in the confederation of Canada in 1867. The oath had stayed the same for 150 years. From a British colony to known for its multiculturalism and diversity with 20% of immigrants representing its total population. Yet, Canadian immigrants still had to bow and oath to the foreign Queen? Dror Bar-Natan is a math professor from Israel. He is also one of the long-time permanent residentsRead MoreCultural Difference And Decision Making931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesalternatives and committing to a future course of action. In this multiculturalism world main question in decision making is cultural difference in an any organization. And does cultural difference influences decision making. In an illustrative sense multicultural is essentially a term which depicts the social and ethnic assorted qualities of contemporary Australia. We are, and will remain, a multicultural society. As an open approach multiculturalism incorporates government measures intended to react to thatRead MoreThe Integration of Chinese Americans and Asian Britons in the United Kingdom1759 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesresearch done on immigrant communities in the United States of American and The United Kingdom yet little on a combination of the two. This paper critically examines the integration of the Chinese Americans as well as their counterparts, the Asian Britons in the United Kingdom. The worlds immigration pattern has transformed societies and those thought of as visitors turned hosts. In many parts of the world especially in the United States and the United Kingdom, there are remarkable stories of people who
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Gun Control Violence Americans seem like they are slow to respond to upcoming disturbing trends. Gun violent tragedy have been happening since the early 1835 and even though gun control acts have been trying its best to help reduce these tragedies but it seems like these tragedies keep happening. The general public have their own different opinions on this matter but it seems that no one have been able to provide a straight answer or solution in solving this problem. The most recent tragedy happened on Dec 14 2012 at Sandy Hook Elementary in Newtown, CT. Since this incident, gun dvocates have once again reminding us that it is our system which is failing us, not the guns. This incident have trigger a sense of awareness in the general public and since then, the voices of requesting for stricter gun controls have never been louder. Looking at statistical result compilation, there are a total of about 25 mass shooting incident happening around the word. We will write a custom essay sample on Gun Control and violence or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Out ofa total of 25 incidents, 15 of them occurred in the USA and we are only Just beginning to realize that our system is flawed. Our current gun control system is making it very easy for mentally unstable ersonal to obtain guns which now come to think of it, it is a very scary problem which we need to fix quickly. Lillian Rubin, the writer of Guns and Grief gives several reasons as to why Cho Seung-Hui are able to execute his mass massacre at Virginia Tech. She mentioned that weapons are too accessible. Cho Seung-Hui was able to buy two semi-automatic pistols, a Glock 9 mm and a Walther P22 along with all the ammo, no questions asked. (Rubin) After the most recent tragedy in Newtown, CT, it occur to me that strict gun control laws and regulation must be nitiated to protect everybody in United States. Yes, I do agree that gun have already successfully blend into the American way of living but we must also agree that not everyone is suitable to own a firearm. What I hope to see is that there will be a very strict background and mental check before allowing anyone to purchase a firearm. This is to ensure that the ir mental state are perfectly normal and are responsible to owning this weapon capable of disastrous acts. Another concern is the illegal black market guns circulating around, there are equally dangerous and the government ust initiate a plan to restrict the flow. The upcoming plan for gun control act must include ways to prevent illegal firearms as well because these firearms are equally deathly and easy to obtain. Renowned producer Michael Moore also mentioned that, The way to honor these dead children is to demand strict gun control, free mental health care, and an end to violence as public policy. (Watson) There are so many guns flowing around the general public which causes disastrous effects, resulting in about 30000 deaths per annual. Over so many years of death and hurt, we are finally oming into light and began to focus more on the problems of gun rights and gun control. We need a ban on automatic AND semiautomatic weapons and magazine clips that hold more than 7 bullets. We need better background checks and more mental health services. We need to regulate the ammo, too. (Moore) Micheal Moore have been voicing his thinking about regulating ammos and restricting highly powered automatic rifles which I fully agreed as we do not need all these high powered weapons circulating in our country. Another point ne mentioned is that ree mental healthcare and more strict and up to speed checks on gun owners. There is also a rise in arguments about the meaning of the Second Amendment and come to terms with the social and political realities of the 21st century. I felt that both sides produce a very strong stand point and theirs personal believes but personally, I felt that I am all forward for strict gun controls/bans as we need to change according to different situations. Guns are for responsible adults whom are careful and at the same time understands the danger of what a firearm could do. I fully support the idea of a stricter gun control as I believe this will help reducing mass massacre tragedies. Guns are not toys and we should always treat them as a very dangerous weapon. Homicides will still happen without the presence of firearms but I strongly believe that without firearms, homicide will not be as efficient as when firearms got involved. I believe that by coming up with a much more stronger and effective system, the government will be able to control the firearms circulating around in the country resulting in reducing massacres and provide us ith a much more safe environment to live in.
Monday, March 9, 2020
The Life and Health Insurance Provided by Social Security Essay Example The Life and Health Insurance Provided by Social Security Paper The Life and Health Insurance Provided by Social Security Paper I am focusing on the topic of Life and Health Insurance Provided by Social Security. Social Security benefits provides income continuation in the event of death, disability, or retirement. It also provides medical expense benefits for disabled or retired persons and specified dependents. According to the Social Security Bulletin, in 1994, 42 million people receiving benefits were receiving some type of cash benefit under Social Security. Around 71 percent of the people receiving benefits were retired or dependents of retirees, about 12 percent were disabled workers or dependents, and 17 percent were survivors of former workers. In this paper I will talk about the definition of social security, coverage requirements, eligibility for Benefits and some of the basic Types of Benefits. There are many different governmental programs designed to provide security for individuals and families. Both public assistance and social insurance programs are organized and undertaken by the government and have the broad social purpose of reducing want destitution. Social insurance is different from public assistance. Social insurance is an insurance program that is compulsory for nearly all Americans, eligibility criteria and benefits are specified by law, and financing is wholly or partially covered by the employer. Unlike public assistance, which is like welfare, employers and employees pay into the social insurance system to earn their rights to benefits. Some examples of social insurance programs include Social Security, which is workersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation, and unemployment compensation. Public assistance which is welfare benefits are financed from federal and state funds that come from general revenues and are not based on any contributions that have been made by the recipients or on their behalf. Some examples of public assistance programs are like Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Medicaid, both of them pay benefits based on need. While public assistance programs have a role in providing economic security, they are not insurance programs since the insurance principles of measuring the risk of the insured or spreading the cost of losses among those exposed do not apply. While it is appropriate and necessary to include possible social insurance benefits in individual financial planning in the event of economic loss due to premature death, disability, or retirement. It is not appropriate to include public assistance, one of the purposes of financial planning is to avoid the need for public assistance. When people talk about Social Security, they are referring to a program created in 1935. This program had the appreviations of OAL standing for Ã¢â¬Å"Old-Aged Insurance. Ã¢â¬ As more time passed, benefits were added and the program was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"Old-Aged and SurvivorsÃ¢â¬â¢ InsuranceÃ¢â¬ or OASI. It was OASDI when disability benefits were added. And when it was the OASDHI, it was because it was the addition of hospital and medical benefits. It is now referred as the Ã¢â¬Å"Social SecurityÃ¢â¬ in its publications. (Social Security Handbook) Social Security cover many different types of people like employees in private industry, most self-employed persons, and members of the armed forces. Social Security taxes must be paid on their wages because coverage is compulsory for well over 90 percent of all workers in the United States. There are some exceptions, for example, railroad workers, who are covered by the Railroad Retirement Act, and federal government employees who were covered by other programs. Before 1984, state and local governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies could elect not to cover certain employees not to cover certain employees under Social Security. This option is no longer allowed according to Pritchett, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn, there are only some exceptions. Municipal government that were elected before 1984 due have the right to voluntarily join the Social Security Program. Ministers are covered automatically also. Members of religious groups whose beliefs prohibit acceptance of benefits are exempt. In order to be eligible to receive benefits, you must have insured status. With this status you may be fully insured, currently insured, or disabled insured, depending upon your work history. Most types of Social Security benefits are payable if you are fully insured. If you do not have enough work experience to be fully insured, you may be currently insured, and you would be eligible for some survivor benefits. The amount of work required to become insured is measured in quarters of coverage. According to Pritchett, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn, in 1995, an employee earned one quarter of credit for each $630 of earnings, up to a maximum of four quarters each year. You get four quarters of coverage for $2520 , even if you earned this much in only one day. The quarterly measure of earnings is adjusted every year to account for raises in average wages. If you have forty quarters of coverage, or have a minimum of six quarters of coverage, or if greater, at least as many quarters of coverage as there are years elapsing after 1950 or after you reach the age of 21. For example, A person at age 25 who has six quarters of coverage is fully insured, as when a person who is 40, he needs 19 quarters of coverage to be fully insured. You are currently insuredif you have at least six quarters of coveragein the thirteen- quarter period ending with the quarter of death. Disability insured status is gained by having twenty quarters of coverage in the forty quarters ending when disability begins. If you are under the age of 31 and your blind, less rigorous disability requirements apply. There are many types of benefits available from Social Security with are abbreviated by OASDHI. First there is old age or retirement. Then there is survivorsÃ¢â¬â¢. Also there is disability and health or Medicare benefits. The insured status of a worker decides if the himself or who in his family is entitled to collect from these benefits. For retirement income benefits, you have to be a fully insured worker. You are more than eligible to receive most of these benefits. A spouse or a divorced spouse has the right to receive these benefits if is atleast 62 years of age, caring for a at least one child of the retired worker, or a dependent child, grandchild or great-grandchild of the retired worker who is under 18 , a full time students when he is 18 or 19, and disabled which began before he was 22, he is entitled to benefits. Normal retirement age has been 65. A fully insured worker can receive full retirement benefits at 65 reduced benefits at 62. Due to financial pressures according to Pritchet, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn, the Social Security system Amendments of 1983 redefined the age of full benefits eligibility. It will be in a later age by the year 2022 to be able to get Social Security benefits. SurvivorsÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits protect the surviving dependents of a fully or currently insured deceased worker. A surviving spouse if has a child under the age of 16 can receive monthly benefits to take care of the child. Also the child is disabled under the age of 18, or a full time student attending elementary school he is eligible. Also if the surviving spouse is entitled to monthly income payments if was dependent on the deceased worker and is not married. In addition to these monthly benefits, a small amount of a death payment of $255 is made upon the death of a worker who is fully or currently insured. It is paid to the spouse living with the worker at the time of death, or a spouse that is entitled otherwise, or children entitled. If there is no children or a spouse, the death benefit is not paid. It is the only benefit that has not raised since the Social Security legislation was passed in 1935 (Pritchett, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn. ) A fully insured worker who has a mental condition that prevents any substantial gainful work which is earning $500 or more per month are considered substantial is entitled to disability benefits after a waiting period of five months. This occurs if he or she has been disabled for 12 months and under 65, or has a disability to result in death. Disability benefits may be stopped if the disabled worker refuses to participate in rehabilitation. They may be reduced if disability benefits are received from workersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation or under federal, state, or local law. ( Pritchett, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn) There are many more types of benefits that are still at hand like health or other type of Medicare benefits. There are so many requirements each person has to full fill in order to get some type of Social Security Benefit. These are great benefits that provide income in the event of death, disability, or retirement. This helps a person be dependent the case of an emergency when one is no longer to work anymore and canÃ¢â¬â¢t have any other form of cash giving. Whether the objective for Social Security is to provide a protection for some people, reform, however, Ã¢â¬Å"will require agreement by politicians and public on the benefits people are entitled to but what benefits taxpayers are willing to fund. Ã¢â¬ ( Pritchett, Schmit, Doerpinghaus, and Athearn)
Friday, February 21, 2020
Do state assessments truly measure a disabled students' intellectual abilities - Research Paper Example Testing to Students with Disabilities Students with disabilities should be afforded the same kinds of opportunities to do well in high-stakes testing. This is proven in a document released by The University of the State of New York?and The State Education Department?Office of Vocational and Education Services ?for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID). It states: According to Test Access and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"All students, including students with disabilities, are expected to learn and achieve high standards.Ã To meet this goal, students with disabilities must have access to general education curriculum courses, electives and required assessments.Ã This was affirmed in 1997 when the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was amended to require that students with disabilities, including students with severe cognitive disabilities through the development of a State alternate assessment, participate in State and districtwide a ssessmentsÃ¢â¬ (pgh. 1). Further, it has been noted that appropriate testing accommodations can and shall have been made in order to take into account the fact that there are several different types of differently-abled learners. What should matter is that these students are given the same types of opportunities as students in regular and Honors courses to achieve their best, at whatever level of schooling they are atÃ¢â¬âbut especially in high school so they are adequately prepared to move on to higher education beyond the secondary level. According to Test Access and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"IDEA 2004 further strengthened this requirement by adding several new provisions that will ensure that students have access to State tests and that test results are valid and... The research paper tells that students with disabilities should be afforded the same kinds of opportunities to do well in high-stakes testing. This is proven in a document released by The University of the State of New York and The State Education Department Office of Vocational and Education Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID). Further, it has been noted that appropriate testing accommodations can and shall have been made in order to take into account the fact that there are several different types of differently-abled learners. What should matter is that these students are given the same types of opportunities as students in regular and Honors courses to achieve their best, at whatever level of schooling they are atÃ¢â¬âbut especially in high school so they are adequately prepared to move on to higher education beyond the secondary level. These accommodations that are called for routinely help assess studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ true intellectual abilities by helping students demonstrate how they have attained a mastery of certain skill sets. According to Test Access and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities, Ã¢â¬Å"Many students with disabilities will require testing accommodations in order to participate in testing programs on an equal basis with their nondisabled peers. Such accommodations provide students with the ability to demonstrate mastery of skills and attainment of knowledge without being limited or unfairly restricted due to [having] a disabilityÃ¢â¬ .